The Step Pyramid
The Step Pyramid was the first great Pyramid. Unlike the later and better known pyramids at Giza, which have a smooth external surface, the great Step Pyramid was built in a series of six steps, giving it a very distinctive appearance. However it was the first pyramid to be built on the escarpment directly opposite Memphis, and marks the major step forward when Egypt built what was then the greatest building in the world.
The Step Pyramid was a huge project. Not only was there the great pyramid itself, rising in six steps to the height equivalent to of the top of the tower of most Medieval cathedrals, but it was also accompanied by a huge courtyard and ancillary buildings — to say nothing of the vast underground chambers where the pharaoh was eventually buried. It was built of stone, whereas virtually all previous buildings in Egypt had been of mud brick, which meant that the whole technology of quarrying stone and conveying it in huge quantities had to be invented and organised for the first time. It meant that huge numbers of people had to be organised. And it meant too that huge numbers of people had to be fed and housed and equipped, probably on the semi-permanent year-long basis. This meant that there had to be a huge agricultural surplus in order to feed and support all these extra mouths. Nothing on this scale had been seen anywhere in the world before this.
But what exactly did the Step Pyramid consist of ? Unlike the later classical pyramids (which were built 20 miles to the north), this was built in a series of six steps. But it was not built as a pyramid from the start, but was a series of enlargements. It began as a rather large square mastaba, bigger than anything before, but still of conventional type. This mastaba was three times enlarged, getting bigger every time. It was then decided that what we want is something altogether her bigger and grander. And so the pyramid was born. It was decided to increase the mastaba in height and to make it into a step pyramid. But this first pyramid only had four steps. Everyone thought this was absolutely wonderful – but let’s make it even bigger. It was therefore enlarged on the north and west sides to make it into the Step Pyramid that still exists today, six steps high, reaching a height of 62 metres or 204 feet.
The burial chamber
But this is only part of the story, for under the pyramid there is the burial chamber. This was not just in a pit but in a shaft, cut down 28 meters into the bedrock — which is the height of an eight storey building. In other words the pyramid went up 62 meters and down 28 meters. It was a lot of work. At the bottom of the shaft was a granite burial vault 3 meters high, sealed in by a plug 1m in diameter and 3ms high: it weighed 3.5 tons. Branching off was an elaborate series of corridors: one led to the king’s apartments, the walls of which were inlaid with blue faience tiles, all ready for him when he was dead. Then on the other side, another series of galleries led to the magazines, where very adequate stores were laid up for his sojourn in the next world. The whole was approached along a stairway which, I have calculated, is almost exactly the same length as the longest escalator on the London underground (at Angel). And if this was not enough, a second spare set of burial chambers of almost identical dimensions was built by the south gateway with an even more elaborate apartment for the king, even if somewhat smaller magazines.
The pyramid was enveloped by a huge courtyard covering some 25 hectares or 37 acres, the size of a small town. This in turn was surrounded by an enclosure wall still 10 m high, 1600 m or nearly a mile long, adorned on the outside with regular bastions and dummy doorways. The building of this alone would have been a massive task. In front of the pyramid to the south was an open courtyard where the Sed festival was celebrated. This was celebrated when the pharaoh had been on the throne for 30 years, and every three years thereafter. The central part of the festival was when the pharaoh had to run, or perhaps just stride between two territorial markers representing the length of his kingdom: there was a dais approached by two stairways at either end. To one side of this was another courtyard, today the most impressive part of the complex visible to tourists, which is known as the Heb-Sed courtyard, surrounded by temples on all sides – those on the long side are dummies — but here in the afterlife the pharaoh could continue to celebrate the Sed festival.
There was a temple on the north side, a huge series of galleries or store houses to the west, an elaborate tomb to the south, and were a couple of “pavilions” and other features which are not understood, and in some cases not yet excavated. The Frenchman, Jean- Philippe Lauer, went out there in 1923 and then spent the next 70 years of his very long life trying to understand the whole complex.
The architect Imhotep
Quite uniquely for any ancient building, we actually know the name of the architect – Imhotep. He was the vizier (equals Prime Minister) of the pharaoh Djoser, and was responsible for the huge feat of the organisation that lay behind the building of the pyramid and its complex. ( He was also a distinguished doctor of medicine, “Administrator of the Great Palace, Hereditary nobleman, High Priest of Heliopolis, Builder, Chief Carpenter, Chief Sculptor, and Maker of Vases in Chief”: Pooh Bah couldn’t do better). A statute of him has survived and his name reverberated down through future generations: he was even treated as a god of healing by the Greeks and Romans. If one were to compile a list of the seven greatest men that the world has ever seen, Imhotep must surely be near the top.
But how did Djoser, or perhaps rather Imhotep, manage to persuade everybody to join together to produce such a magnificent, though to our eyes quite useless, project? Partly no doubt it was the success of Egyptian agriculture, the sheer fertility of the Nile which by its annual inundation produced an agricultural surplus that enabled half the population to produce all the food, while the other half built pyramids. But even more important there must be the psychological aspect, and one does wonder just what happened in the somewhat murky period known as the Second Dynasty. Was Egypt really in danger of falling apart and losing its treasured unity and spending its agricultural surplus on war, rather than on pyramids? (And useless though those pyramids may appear to us, they are surely a better way to spend one’s surplus than fighting one another).
Can we build up an alternative history? In the Second Dynasty, did the unity really fall apart? The best evidence for this comes from the pharaoh Peribsen. All pharaohs have several names, one of which was the Horus name. Upper and Lower Egypt had their own special gods, and Horus was the god of Upper (Southern) Egypt and Seth was the god of Lower Egypt. And the essential superiority of south over north was shown by the fact that pharaohs always flaunted their Horus name. Peribsen however replaced his Horus name by a Seth name – an act of defiance against the south? He was however buried at Abydos so he could not have been an outright rebel. But on such minor changes of nomenclature is the theory of revolt by the North against the South built.
Unity however appears to have been restored by the last pharaoh of the Second Dynasty, Khasekhemwy, who had the last and biggest burial at Abydos. The name of his wife is recorded, Queen Nima’athapr, the implication being that she was a powerful figure in her own right. She had two sons Nebka and Djoser, and the theory is that Nebka became the moderately successful first pharaoh of the Third Dynasty from 2649 to 2630 BC and was succeeded by his hugely successful brother Djoser from 2630 to 2611 BC – at least these are the dates given by Baines and Malek in their ‘Atlas of Ancient Egypt’. In other words, the Step Pyramid was the ‘peace dividend’ after the disunity of the Second Dynasty. The war had gone, peace was established, agriculture was flourishing, everyone was very grateful to the pharaohs for restoring peace and was willing therefore to hand over their surplus as tribute, or taxation to their wonderful rulers.
Was this the time that the rulers were elevated in status to being gods? In later times, in the New Kingdom, when literary evidence is abundant, the pharaohs were regarded as gods, being on an entirely different level to ordinary mortals. Did this elevation occur at the beginning of the Third Dynasty? Was Djoser, no doubt by a gradual though an important step, recognised as a god? Was this indeed the great propaganda coup of Imhotep to persuade everyone that the pharaoh was the god who was responsible for the agricultural surplus and all their riches, and that they should celebrate peace and prosperity by all joining together and building this huge pyramid?
It was no doubt a time of toil and hard work: but was there also exhilaration, a feeling that they were doing something on a scale that had never been done before, and which would still exist for us to wonder at, 5000 years later?
But how did the first true pyramids evolve?
17th May 2012